History of Oil

         Crude Oil: Key Historical Events

          Fundamentals of Oil
               Finding Oil & Gas
               Securing Leases
               Drilling For Oil & Gas
               Evaluating/Well Logging/Coring
               Completing the Well
               Cementing/Perforating
               Acidizing/Fracturing
               Artificial Lifts/Injection Wells
               Oil Production/Secondary Recovery
               Waterflooding in the Illinois Basin
               Operation/Sale of Oil

          Why Participate in Oil

          Choose Your Participation Level

          Tax Advantages

          Risks

Operation & Sale of Oil

Operation
Operation ImageWhen all equipment is in place, the oil may begin to flow into the holding tanks to await pick up. It can be expected that a well will not be in production for certain times due to adverse weather conditions, mechanical malfunctions and other unforeseen circumstances. After the production period commences, it is necessary to incur certain costs in order to bring the oil to the surface. These costs include normal maintenance on the pump and other equipment, replacement of any pipe or tanks as needed, compensation to the operator of the pump, and payment of any incidental damages to the owner of the surface rights of the leased property. In some cases, the oil in a pay zone will be mixed with salt water. In such cases, the oil must be separated from the salt water and the salt water disposed of in a manner which is not harmful to the environment. The water may be hauled away by tank truck but often this phenomenon requires the drilling, nearby the oil producing well, of another well into which the salt water will be pumped. The cost of this water disposal well is normally considered to be a cost of operation. Finally, there may be additional costs incurred in opening up a new pay zone when any presently producing pay zone becomes economically unfeasible. Because opening a new pay zone involves the installation of very little, if any, new equipment, the costs involved therein usually are not very substantial.


Sale of Oil
Once the oil is out of the ground and into the holding tanks, it must be sold. In most cases each holder of a working interest has the right to take his portion of production in kind, therefore, make his own arrangements for its sale. It is not uncommon, however, for all the holders of a working interest of a well to enter into the same arrangement with the same buyer of the oil production. These sale contracts are normally entered into for periods of not longer than a few months but in no case longer than one year. The buyer of the oil will generally be advised by the operator of the working interest as to the identity and extent of ownership of each of the holders of the working interest, as well as the identity of the royalty holders and the amount of their interests. The information will be compiled on division orders which are the basis upon which the buyer of the oil can divide the proceeds of sale among the various holders. The buyer of the oil will pick up the oil from the holding tanks at periodic intervals, gauge it and remit the remaining proceeds in the proper amounts to the holders of the working interest and the royaltie.


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